RESOLUTION ON CYBER SECURITY
- Recalling that in the contemporary world modern information societies depend significantly on cyberspace – an electronic environment including products, services and information,
- Recognizing the fact that cyber attacks in any form have become a serious security threat, which cannot be ignored or underestimated,
- Underlining that insecurity in our common cyberspace is an obstacle for further economic development, innovation and social prosperity,
- Recognizing that cyber attacks can be a society-wide challenge, including governments, private companies, non-governmental organizations and private Internet users, because they may destabilize society, jeopardize the availability of public services and the functioning of vital state infrastructure,
- Reiterating that any country that relies extensively on cyberspace might be influenced by cyber attacks the same way as by conventional acts of aggression,
- Stressing that meeting the new demands of the changed security environment is not only a challenge for those countries directly affected by the new situation but a challenge for every single country in the world,
- Recognizing that the continuing globalization and interoperability of information systems will make cyberspace even more vulnerable and that the new security techniques and strategies may not respond sufficiently to this increased vulnerability,
- Noting that the Internet has always been fuelled by policies that promote the free flow of information and that protect human rights and foster innovation, creativity, and economic growth,
- Convinced that the OSCE could play a useful role in providing a platform for policy makers, relevant experts and other stakeholders by broadening the discussion on cyber security,
- Acknowledging that countering cyber threats requires a significant increase of assets in terms of improving awareness, training, and investments in technology as well as advancing conceptual and doctrinal approaches,
- Welcoming the discussions in international forum on how to respond effectively to the abuse of cyberspace for espionage, criminal, terrorist and military purposes and the discussions and decisions initiated by NATO, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, and elsewhere,
- Recognizing that cyber security has become a matter of substantial concern to, inter alia, the Council of Europe, the EU, NATO and the UN General Assembly,
- Reaffirming the role of the OSCE as a regional arrangement under Chapter VIII of the UN Charter and a key instrument for early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation in its area,
- Reiterating its concern over the persistence of cyber attacks in various places of the OSCE area,
- Recognizing the previous work done in the OSCE with respect to various aspects of cyber-security, in particular the OSCE Informal Working Group Established by PC Decision 1039, tasked to elaborate a set of draft confidence-building measures (CBMs) to enhance interstate co-operation, transparency, predictability and stability and to reduce the risks of misperception, escalation and conflict that may stem from the use of information and telecommunication technologies (ICT),
- Underlining the urgent need for the international community to increase co-operation and information exchange in the field of cyber security, because only with joint and co ordinated efforts is it possible to effectively respond to the threats originating from cyberspace,
- Stressing that the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime of 2001 is the only legally binding multilateral instrument specifically addressing the computer-related crime, but it has been ratified or acceded to by 39 states only,
- Welcoming the fact that several OSCE participating States have already developed and adopted countermeasures against various kinds of cyber threats, and noting however the countermeasures have been mostly internal and cannot be effective in the worldwide-networked environment,
- Emphasizing the commitment of OSCE participating states to respect and foster the principles of international law,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
- Recommends that the OSCE could function as a regional mechanism supporting, co ordinating and reviewing the development and implementation of national activities in this field, building on and furthering previous activities related to various aspects of cyber security;
- Expresses its regret that the international community has been unable to agree on specific countermeasures against cyber threats so far;
- Maintains that the results of a cyber attack against vital state infrastructure do not differ in nature from that of a conventional act of aggression;
- Notes that cyberspace has been an environment to promote the free flow of information, to foster innovation and economic growth and should remain so;
- Calls upon OSCE participating States to promote and facilitate access to the Internet and international co-operation aimed at the development of media and information and communications facilities in all countries;
- Urges the parliamentarians of OSCE participating States to intensify their efforts in convincing the parliaments and governments in their countries that threats originating from cyberspace are one of the most serious security challenges of present time, which can jeopardize the way of life of modern societies and civilization as a whole;
- Urges Governments to take a leading role in defending a free and safe cyberspace, unequivocally condemn cyber attacks and seek common effective solutions to protect cyberspace from misuse and malicious activities;
- Notes the OSCE's efforts made to increase transparency and stability and to reduce risks stemming from cyberspace;
- Urges OSCE participating States to use its comprehensive and cross-dimensional approach to security and to continue its efforts on the development of CBMs in cyber security;
- Stresses the need to tackle cyber threats without undermining fundamental rights and freedoms, and that the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online, in particular freedom of expression;
- Urges OSCE participating States and all other members of the international community to consider joining the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime and follow its provisions;
- Urges OSCE participating States to consider joining also the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, which offers additional instruments for preventing cyber attacks by terrorist groups and use of the Internet for terrorist purposes;
- Draws attention to the need to study existing legal acts concerning cyber security and to find supplementary means, including harmonization of the relevant legislation of States, to make international co-operation in the field of cyber security more efficient;
- Urges all parties involved to search, in good faith, for negotiated solutions in the field of cyber security in order to achieve a comprehensive and lasting settlement which shall be based on the norms and principles of international law;
- Calls upon all parties to make full use of available dialogue mechanisms and formats in a constructive spirit;
- Supports all efforts to enhance information exchange on relevant experiences and best practices, also involving relevant actors from the private sector and civil society, and to establish public-private partnerships in this regard;
- Encourages OSCE participating States to develop, adopt and implement national action plans on cyber security;
- Urges OSCE participating States to adopt anticipatory measures in order to prevent security incidents, and to increase the security awareness of information and communication technology users;
- Welcomes the proposal to hold a conference or a round-table for OSCE parliamentarians, taking into account and building on previously held OSCE events related to various aspects of cyber security, and to gain, through the help of experts, detailed information on all relevant aspects of the issue;
- Asks the representatives of OSCE participating States to forward this resolution to the governments and parliaments of their countries.
1 Wrap gifts in fabric and tie with ribbon; both are reusable and prettier than paper and sticky-tape.
2 Start a compost heap to reduce the waste you send to landfill sites.
3 Buy your own hive: without bees the planet would last for only 60 years (and honey is good for your health).
4 Use a nappy washing service: they use 32% less energy and 41% less water than home washing.
5 Slow down. Driving at 50mph uses 25% less fuel than 70mph.
6 Wash your clothes with your flatmates' instead of wasting water on half-empty loads.
7 Turn down your central heating and put on a jumper.
8 Take a brisk shower, not a leisurely bath, to save water.
9 Hold a Tupperware party. Airtight food containers can be reused; sandwich bags and plastic wrap cannot.
10 Choose energy-efficient appliances when you replace old ones.
11 Buy compact fluorescent light bulbs. They last eight times as long and use a fraction of the energy.
12 Join a library instead of buying books.
13 Get to know your neighbours; they are more likely to keep your home safe than energy-guzzling security lamps.
14 Recycle your car oil at a recycling depot or petrol station; it contains lead, nickel and cadmium.
15 Get on your bike instead of driving.
16 Let them carry you off in a biodegradable cardboard coffin, saving trees.
17 Use low-phosphate washing-up liquid and washing powder. Phosphates stimulate algal growth when discharged into the water supply, lowering oxygen levels and killing plants and fish.
18 Buy local, or better still, grow your own food, so energy is not wasted on transportation.
19 Raise your glass to organic beer; conventionally grown hops are sprayed up to a dozen times a year.
20 Use recycling facilities. If there aren't any, ask your council for them.
21 Ditch the air-conditioner and buy an aspidistra; plants help cut pollution.
22 Take the plunge and move in with your partner so you light and heat one home rather than two.
23 Give a colleague a lift to work; if no one is going your way, join a carshare scheme to find a passenger.
24 Cook for friends. Large quantities of food use less packaging than the same quantity in individual portions (and take less energy to cook).
25 Copy ministers by holidaying in Britain (but unlike them, skip the follow-up trip to Tuscany).
26 Give your garden a good breakfast; coffee grounds and eggshells are ideal for composting.
27 Refuse plastic carrier bags, or at least reuse them. Cloth bags are better.
28 Donate your leftover paint to a community project; Britons fail to use 6.2m litres of the paint they buy each year.
29 Drink tap or filtered water, not bottled.
30 Invest in a washing line; tumble dryers devour electricity.
31 Buy chocolates from proper chocolate stores, so they are not individually wrapped.
32 Turn off TVs and stereos instead of switching them to standby.
33 Lighten up: paint your walls a pale colour, so you need less artificial light.
34 Only flush toilets if really needed; follow the Australian maxim: "If it's yellow that's mellow, if it's brown flush it down."
35 Improve the ambience and dine by candlelight, saving electricity.
36 Insulate your home. Cavity wall insulation can cut heat loss through the wall by up to 60%.
37 Buy from companies with eco-friendly policies; boycott those without.
38 Soak up the sun; even in Britain, solar panels can produce a surprising amount of energy.
39 Clean the back of your fridge. Dusty coils can increase energy consumption by 30%.
40 Avoid air travel; it produces three times more carbon dioxide per passenger than rail.
41 Pretend Christmas has come early; turkey is more likely than chicken to be produced in the UK, while British-grown brussel sprouts require less transport than Kenyan mangetout.
42 Grow plants to give to friends instead of cut flowers.
43 Choose a car with a 3-way catalytic converter, to reduce nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons emissions by 90%.
44 Ban blinds. Heavy curtains keep in more heat in winter.
45 Change materials as well as rooms; MDF and chipboard release formaldehyde, a carcinogen. Buy sustainably produced wood instead.
46 Cut up the plastic rings from packs of beer; they are invisible in water so wildlife can choke on them or trap themselves.
47 Bring a mug to the office instead of using polystyrene cups.
48 Snap up a 36-exposure film instead of 24, reducing waste from packaging and processing.
49 Cancel that expensive gym membership and walk to work instead.
50 Buy less. Save time and money as well as the planet.
Suggestions submitted by Guardian journalists and staff, the World Wildlife Fund and The Ecologist magazine's book Go Mad! 365 Daily Ways to Save the Planet. See www.theecologist.org