Fumi Hirano Essay Outline

1. Voice acting – Voice acting is the art of doing voice-overs or providing voices to represent a character or to provide information to an audience or user. Voice acting is also done for small handheld audio games, performers are called voice actors or actresses, voice artists, or voice talent. Their roles may also involve singing, although a voice actor is sometimes cast as the characters singing voice. Voice acting is recognised in Britain as a specialized dramatic profession, Voice artists are also used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement. The voices for animated characters are provided by voice actors, for live action productions, voice acting often involves reading the parts of computer programs, radio dispatchers, or other characters who never actually appear on screen. With a radio drama or CD drama, there is freedom in voice acting, because there is no need to match a dub to the original actors. In the context of voice acting, narration is the use of commentary to convey a story to an audience. A narrator is a character or a non-personal voice that the creator of the story develops to deliver information to the audience. The voice actor who plays the narrator is responsible for performing the lines assigned to the narrator. In traditional literary narratives, narration is a story element, in other types of narratives, such as plays, television shows, video games. One of the most common uses for voice acting is within commercial advertising, the voice actor is hired to voice a message associated with the advertisement. This has different subgenres, television, radio, cinema, the subgenres are all different styles in their own right. Voiceover used in commercial adverts also is the area of voice acting where de-breathing is used. De-breathing means artificially removing breaths from the recorded voice and this is done to stop the audience being distracted in any way from the commercial message that is being put across. Dub localization is a type of voice-over and it is the practice of voice-over translation altering a foreign language film, art film or television series by voice actors. Voice-over translation is an audiovisual translation technique, in which, unlike in Dub localization, actor voices are recorded over the audio track. This method of translation is most often used in documentaries and news reports to translate words of foreign-language interviewees, automated dialogue replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. ADR is also used to change original lines recorded on set to clarify context, improve diction or timing, in the UK, it is also called post-synchronization or post-sync

2. BBC Three – BBC Three was a British television channel operated by the BBC. Unlike its commercial rivals, 90% of BBC Threes output originated from the United Kingdom, 70% was original, covering all genres, including animation, comedy, current affairs, and drama. The former controller of the station, Zai Bennett, left to join Sky Atlantic in July 2014, despite significant public opposition, the proposal was provisionally approved by the BBC Trust in June 2015, with a new consultation open until 30 September of that year. The TV channel ceased operations on 16 February 2016, replaced by an online-only version, in late 2001 the BBC decided to reposition and rebrand their two digital channels so that they could be more closely linked to the well established BBC One and BBC Two. Their plan was for BBC Knowledge to be replaced with BBC Four—which took place in 2002—and for BBC Choice to be replaced with BBC Three, the channel was eventually given the go ahead, eleven months after the original launch date, and launched on 9 February 2003. The channel was launched by Stuart Murphy, who previously ran BBC Choice, and before that UK Play, on 12 May 2011, BBC Three was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 229. It was later moved to channel 210 on 3 July 2012, for the duration of the 2012 Summer Olympics, BBC Three increased its broadcasting hours to 24 hours to provide extra coverage of Olympic events. Broadcast hours were extended again for the 2014 Commonwealth Games with BBC Three broadcasting from 9,00 am to 4,00 am for the duration of the games, on 16 July 2013 the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Three would be launched by early 2014. The channel launched on 10 December 2013, there was notable backlash against the measures, with celebrities including Greg James, Matt Lucas and Jack Whitehall speaking out. A petition against the move on change. org has gathered over 300,000 signatures, however, there was some support from media commentators, and those who backed a slimmer BBC. When the BBC revealed the detail in December 2014, it admitted there was widespread opposition from BBC Three viewers. They believed the public welcomed a BBC One +1 as it admits a vast majority of viewing still takes place on linear channels, the Save BBC Three campaign pointed out this was a contradiction to what the BBC said about BBC Three. The BBC Trust began a 28-day public consultation regarding the plans on 20 January 2015 and it did not consider the proposals cost-effective because the BBC will need to spend on a new brand and triple advertising budgets to increase awareness of the new service. The Trust also approved related proposals to allow first-run and third-party content on iPlayer, the BBC One timeshift service was rejected, citing limited public value. They had previously offered to buy the channel to keep it on television, BBC Three signed off during the early morning of 16 February 2016. The final programme was an episode of Gavin & Stacey, introduced by co-star James Corden from the Los Angeles studio of The Late Late Show, the channel thereafter carried promotional information regarding the BBC Three internet service until it officially went dark. The channels target audience was 16–34-year-olds, and it faced competition from rivals including ITV2 and E4. In 2008 it reached 26. 3% of 16–34-year-olds in digital homes—the channels highest ever such reach and above that of E4, ITV2, Dave, despite several official complaints from the BBC, BARB continues to publish figures which the BBC argues are unrepresentative

3. Animax – Animax, stylized as ANIMAX, is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. The channel also dubbed cartoons in Japanese language, Animax is the first and largest 24-hour network in the world dedicated to anime and cartoons. Animax has separate 24-hour TV channels for Japan, Animax Asia, and a VOD service in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Established on May 20,1998 by Sony, Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. originally premiered in Japan on June 1, the same year, across the SKY PerfecTV. Headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, and presided by Masao Takiyama, Animaxs shareholders and founders include Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sunrise, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment and its founders also include noted anime producer and production designer Yoshirō Kataoka. The network began broadcasting in high definition from October 2009, Animax also exhibits affiliations with anime pioneer Osamu Tezukas Tezuka Productions company, Pierrot, Nippon Animation, and numerous others. Noted Japanese celebrities and personalities to have appeared on Animax with their own programs, include actress Natsuki Katō, the networks narrators are the voice actors Yukari Tamura and Kōsuke Okano, and from October 2007, Sayuri Yahagi. Apart from operating its business primarily as a network, Animax has also begun operating a mobile television service. In February 2007, Animax announced that it would be launching a television service of its network on the mobile phone company MOBAHO. From April 2007, having its programming being viewable by the mobile phone subscribers. Since July 2011 a program called STUDIO MUSIX has been transmitted the first Sunday of every month, in each episode theres a segment of Mayn and the guests on an interview and also a live stage featuring them. Cartoon series broadcast include Transformers, Generation 1, Transformers Prime, Transformers, Generation 2, Ying Yang Yo, Jackie Chan Adventures, Metalocallypse, Arms Micron, joe, Renegades, Sonic X and Digimon Adventure appears in MorningMax, released as 2015. Animax launched separate Asian versions of the channel featuring its programming within separate networks and feeds in the respective regions. The first one was launched in Taiwan and the Philippines on January 1,2004, on July 5,2004, Animax started operations across South Asia including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives, featuring its programming within an English-language feed. On April 29,2006, Animax started its operations in South Korea, on August 31,2006, Animax launched its Malaysian feed. Animax used the latest logo launched on May 3,2010, as of 2016 Animax has separate 24-hour TV channels for Animax Asia and South Korea. Animax was launched in Latin America on July 31,2005, replacing Locomotion after Sonys purchase from Hearst Corporation and Corus Entertainment, the channels non-anime programming were removed from the lineup, which was later replaced with an all-anime lineup. Animax Latin America began operating across the region and broadcasting its anime programming

4. Ten (Urusei Yatsura) – Urusei Yatsura, a manga and anime series created by Rumiko Takahashi, has a large ensemble cast which includes many cameo appearances from Japanese mythology and history. Names of some of the characters are below and they are in Western order, with the surname after the given name. Moroboshi Ataru Ataru Morobosh is the main protagonist of the series, thanks to this lack of good fortune, his triumph in the game of tag that saved Earth from Oni invasion turned into a defeat for him. His victory statement, intended to confirm his then-girlfriend Shinobus promise to him if he won, was misinterpreted by Lum to be a marriage proposal. Much to his chagrin, she accepted and his main goal in life is to live in the center of a harem composed of exotic and beautiful women, including Lum and most of her alien friends. Usually, he just walks up to a woman hes never met before and asks for her name, phone number, and address. If Lum, who views him as her husband, should witness these usually futile flirting efforts, she zaps him with massive quantities of electricity. Ataru may come across as stupid and lazy, but he is quite intelligent. Though he often tries to escape from Lum and openly flirts with women, he truly loves Lum. Voiced by Toshio Furukawa and Michael Sinterniklaas, Candice Moore, Steve Rassin, ramu Lum is the female protagonist of the series. She is a beautiful Oni alien who is capable of flying and generating electrical shocks and she is extremely popular and is famous for ending her sentences with ~daccha. Except when in her uniform, human-style street clothes, or a swimsuit, she usually wears her standard outfit consisting of a tiger-striped bikini. While generally good-natured, sweet, faithful, and innocent, Lum also has a hot temper. Her dream in life is to live in a Sweet Home with Darling, in which she keeps house and raises the children, while Ataru, her Darling, works a job. As an alien she has access to many bizarre gadgets whose use she doesnt always understand completely, mendō Shutarō Shutaro Mendou is heir to the Mendou Zaibatsu with staggering wealth and its own private army. He commutes to school in a helicopter that is more like a flying mansion. A descendant of a family, Shutaro often carries a katana with him, which at any moment could be flying at Atarus face. Swordplay even extends to his name Men and Dou Kendo terminology for a blow to the head, although very handsome and intelligent, he is truly just as foolish and lecherous as Ataru, just much more sophisticated in his approach

5. Engagement – An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage. During this period, a couple is said to be betrothed, intended, affianced, engaged to be married, future brides and grooms may be called the betrothed, a wife-to-be or husband-to-be, fiancée or fiancé, respectively. The duration of the courtship varies vastly, and is dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved. Long engagements were once common in formal arranged marriages, and it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages many years before the couple were old enough. Erusin changes the couples interpersonal status, while nissuin brings about the consequences of the change of status. This was later adopted in Ancient Greece as the gamos and engeysis rituals, Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a ceremony performed in public. The betrothal is now part of the Jewish wedding ceremony. As mentioned above, betrothal in Judaism is separate from engagement, breaking a betrothal requires a formal divorce, for adults, it may be anywhere from several hours to a period of several years. A year and a day are common in neo-pagan groups today, in the case of child marriage, betrothal might last from infancy until the age of marriage. The responsibilities and privileges of betrothal vary, in most cultures, the betrothed couple is expected to spend much time together, learning about each other. In some historical cultures, the betrothal was essentially a trial marriage, almost all cultures are loosening restrictions against physical contact between partners, even in cultures that normally had strong prohibitions against it. The betrothal period was considered to be a preparatory time, in which the groom built a house. A betrothal is considered to be a semi-binding contract, in some common law countries, including England and Wales and many US states, it was once possible for the spurned partner to sue the other for breach of promise or heart-balm. The Rite of Betrothal in the Anglican Communion is found within The Book of Common Prayer, the Anglican Communion, as well as the Methodist Church and Presbyterian Church, has questions & responses for family members in its Rite of Betrothal. In the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Rite of Betrothal is traditionally performed in the narthex of the church, the priest blesses the couple and gives them lit candles to hold. Then, after a litany, and a prayer at which everyone bows, he places the ring on the ring finger of the grooms right hand. The rings are exchanged three times, either by the priest or by the best man, after which the priest says a final prayer

6. Protagonist – A protagonist is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama. The protagonist is at the center of the story, typically makes the key decisions, the protagonist usually affects the main characters circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a made up of several stories. The word protagonist is used notably in stories and forms of literature and culture that contain stories, in those forms the protagonist may simply be the leading actor, or the principal character in the story. The antagonist will provide obstacles and complications and create conflict that test the protagonist, thus revealing the strengths, the earliest known examples of protagonist are dated back to Ancient Greece. At first dramatic performances involved merely dancing and recitation by the chorus, but then in Poetics, Aristotle describes how a poet named Thespis introduced the idea of having one actor step out and engage in a dialogue with the chorus. This was the invention of tragedy, which occurred about 536 B. C, then the poet Aeschylus, in his plays, introduced a second actor, inventing the idea of dialogue between two characters. Sophocles then wrote plays that required a third actor, euripides play Hippolytus may be considered to have two protagonists. The protagonist of the first half is Phaedra, who dies partway through the play and her stepson, the titular Hippolytus, assumes the dominant role in the second half of the play. In Ibsen’s play The Master Builder, the protagonist is the architect Halvard Solness, the young woman, Hilda Wangel, whose actions lead to the death of Solness, is the antagonist. In Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is the protagonist and he is actively in pursuit of his relationship with Juliet, and the audience is invested in that story. The character of Tybalt opposes Romeo’s desires, he is the antagonist, in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, Prince Hamlet, who seeks revenge for the murder of his father, is the protagonist. The antagonist would be the character who most opposes Hamlet, Claudius, in the novel The Catcher in the Rye, the character Holden Caulfield is the protagonist. He is the character, and the reader is invested in his story. Sometimes, a work will have a false protagonist, who may seem to be the protagonist, the character Marion in Alfred Hitchcocks film Psycho is an example. A novel that contains a number of narratives may have a number of protagonists, alexander Solzhenitsyns The First Circle, for example, depicts a variety of characters imprisoned and living in a gulag camp. Leo Tolstoys War and Peace, depicts fifteen major characters involved in or affected by a war

7. Manga – Manga are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art, the term manga in Japan is a word used to refer to both comics and cartooning. Manga as a term used outside Japan refers to comics published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga, many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007. Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience, in Europe and the Middle East the market was worth $250 million in 2012. In 2008, in the U. S. and Canada, the market was valued at $175 million, the markets in France. Manga stories are printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist. In Japan, manga are usually serialized in manga magazines, often containing many stories. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in tankōbon volumes, frequently but not exclusively, a manga artist typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run, sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in parts of the world, particularly in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan. The word manga comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 meaning whimsical or impromptu and 画 meaning pictures, rakuten Kitazawa first used the word manga in the modern sense. In Japanese, manga refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, among English speakers, manga has the stricter meaning of Japanese comics, in parallel to the usage of anime in and outside Japan. The term ani-manga is used to describe comics produced from animation cels, writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U. S, occupation of Japan, and stresses U. S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics and images and themes from U. S. television, film, and cartoons. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity certainly occurred in the period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka. Astro Boy quickly became popular in Japan and elsewhere

8. Anime – Anime is Japanese hand-drawn or computer animation. The word is the pronunciation of animation in Japanese, where this term references all animation. Arguably, the abstract approach to the words meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners strictly view anime as a Japanese animation product, some scholars suggest defining anime as specifically or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, and Japanese anime production has continued to increase steadily. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media and it is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is an art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies. It consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining art, characterization, cinematography. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of effects, including panning, zooming. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli, Gainax, and Toei Animation. Despite comprising only a fraction of Japans domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales and it has also seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming. This rise in popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Anime is an art form, specifically animation, that all genres found in cinema. In Japanese, the term refers to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more used to denote a Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment or as a style of animation created in Japan. The etymology of the anime is disputed. The English term animation is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form, in English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun

9. Urusei Yatsura – Urusei Yatsura is a comedic manga series written and illustrated by Rumiko Takahashi and serialized in Weekly Shōnen Sunday from 1978 to 1987. Its 374 individual chapters were published in 34 tankōbon volumes and it is the story of Ataru Moroboshi, and the alien Lum, who believes she is Atarus wife after he accidentally proposes to her. The series makes use of Japanese mythology, culture and puns. The series was adapted into an anime TV series produced by Kitty Films, eleven OVAs and six theatrical movies followed, and the series was released on VHS, Laserdisc, DVD, and Blu-ray Disc in Japan. The manga series was republished in different formats in Japan, Viz Media licensed the series for English publication in North America under the names Lum and The Return of Lum, but dropped the series after nine volumes were released. The television series, OVAs, and five of the films were released in North America with English subtitles and they provided extensive notes on the series to allow people to understand the many cultural references and jokes in the series that would not normally be understood by non-Japanese. The remaining film, Beautiful Dreamer, was released bilingually by Central Park Media, five of the movies, as well as the OVAs, are available from MVM Films in the United Kingdom. The series was released on television in Southeast Asia as Lamu the Invader Girl, the series received positive reception in and out of Japan from fans and critics alike. In 1980, the received the Shogakukan Manga Award. The television series is credited with introducing the format of using pop songs as opening and closing themes in anime, in 2008, the first new episode in 17 years was shown at the Rumiko Takahashi exhibition Its a Rumic World. An alien race known as the Oni arrive on Earth to invade the planet, instead of taking over the planet by force, the Oni give humans a chance to fight for the rights to the planet by taking part in a competition. The competition is a variant of the game of tag, in which the player must touch the horns on the head of the Oni player within one week. Despite his initial reluctance to part in the competition, Ataru becomes interested in the game when he meets Lum. When the competition begins, Lum surprises everyone by flying away, before the last day of the competition, Atarus girlfriend Shinobu Miyake encourages Ataru by pledging to marry him if he wins. On the final day of the competition, Ataru wins the game by stealing Lums bikini top, in celebrating his victory, Ataru expresses his joy at being able to get married, however, Lum misinterprets this as a proposal from Ataru and accepts on live television. Despite the misunderstanding, Lum falls in love with Ataru and moves into his house, despite Atarus lack of interest in Lum and attempts to rekindle his relationship with Shinobu, Lum frequently interferes and Shinobu loses interest in Ataru. Still, Atarus flirtatious nature persists despite Lums attention, Lum attempts to stop him from flirting, which results in Ataru receiving powerful electric shock attacks from Lum as punishment. Two characteristics of Ataru are particularly strong, his pervertedness and his bad luck that draws to him all weirdos of the planet, later Lum begins attending the same school as Ataru despite his objections

10. Belldandy – Belldandy is a character in the popular anime and manga series Oh My Goddess. She was created by Kōsuke Fujishima as one of three Goddesses who come to Earth to reside with Keiichi Morisato, and she serves as his love interest. She is depicted as a beautiful and powerful woman, with strong nurturing tendencies, a trusting and innocent character. Belldandy is accidentally summoned from heaven by Keiichi in order to grant him a wish, the stories follow Belldandy as she builds a relationship with Keiichi, using her powers to help both Keiichi and his friends while keeping her true identity a secret. Her first appearance was in Afternoon in August 1988, Belldandy has also featured in a novel, two TV series, a movie, and three OVA series. The character has gained respect throughout the various formats, as evidenced by her appearance as one of the most popular characters in the Newtype. The concept of Belldandy draws loosely from Norse mythology, with Belldandy being a transliteration of the Old Norse Verðandi and she is joined by characters representing the other two of the trio of Norns—her sisters Urd and Skuld. The characters very conservative nature, however, which almost completely subordinates her to her fictional boyfriend, Belldandy was created by Kōsuke Fujishima and features as one of the two principal protagonists in the manga Ah. Her first appearance was in the comic Afternoon on August 25,1988 and my Goddess and The Adventures of Mini-Goddess—and in Ah. Belldandys original concept was based on a depiction of Miyuki Kobayakawa, one of the main characters of Youre Under Arrest. The character Ken Nakajima from Youre Under Arrest appears in the first episode of the original OVA and he is driving the car that Keiichi almost hits with his motorcycle. Fujishima was particularly interested in the concept of a goddess as a job, thus Belldandy is based on Verðandi, the Norse Goddess of the present, and she is one of the three Norns or fates from Norse mythology. Verdandi, when translated into Japanese, becomes ベルダンディー, as the Japanese phonetic system does not distinguish between b and v or r and l, Belldandy can emerge as a product of consonant substitutions. Indeed, it was in the first chapter of the manga that her name was transliterated as Belldandy rather than Verdandi, Belldandy is depicted as being a Goddess working with the fictional Goddess Relief Agency. Fujishima provided the character with two sisters—Skuld and Urd—each with notably different personalities from her own and these two sisters represent the other two Norns from Norse mythology, with Urd representing the past while Skuld represents the future. In recent volumes, Fujishima revealed the identity of Skuld and Belldandys mother, a goddess named Ansuz, when the series begins, Belldandy is working on the Goddess Technical Helpline, also known as Goddess Relief Office / Agency and is responsible for granting wishes to those who call. As such, her role is similar to the character Peorths work at the Earth Assistance Agency, in spite of working for Heaven, Belldandy, unlike her two sisters, does not appear to play a significant role in maintaining Yggdrasil. The magical girl character, of which Belldandy is an example, for Western audiences, a comparison can be drawn with the characters of Samantha Stephens from Bewitched and Jeannie from I Dream of Jeannie

11. Oh My Goddess! – My Goddess. in some releases, is a Japanese seinen manga series written and illustrated by Kōsuke Fujishima. The chapters have been adapted into an original animation produced by Anime International Company. Additionally, AIC has developed two OVAs and a film, and OLM, Inc. has also developed a series as well. Companies have developed thousands of types of merchandise, such as games. The manga series has been licensed for an English-language release by Dark Horse Comics, the OVA was licensed by AnimEigo, while the film was licensed by Geneon Entertainment, and the various TV series was licensed at various points by Media Blasters, ADV Films and Funimation. Keiichi Morisato is a sophomore who accidentally calls the Goddess Help Line. She tells him that her agency has received a system request from him and has sent to grant him a single wish. Believing that a joke is being played on him, he wishes that she will stay with him forever. Unable to live with Belldandy in his male-only dorms, they are forced to look for alternative housing and they are allowed to stay there indefinitely after the young monk living there leaves on a pilgrimage to India upon being impressed by Belldandys intrinsic goodness. Keiichis life with Belldandy becomes even more hectic when her elder sister Urd, a series of adventures ensue as his relationship with Belldandy develops. Universe is fashioned loosely around Celtic/Norse Mythology, various names and concepts are recycled for humor, three worlds exist in the Universe of Oh My Goddess, Heaven, Hell, and Earth. Heaven is the realm of the All Mighty and goddesses, Hell is the realm of Hild and demons, reality is controlled by an enormous and complex computer system, named Yggdrasil. Each goddess is assigned Class, Category, and Restrictions, Class indicates power and skill in performing pure magic. First Class goddesses are held to a standard regarding the prohibition to lie. There are also three categories, Administration, Commercial, and Special Duty, Limited and Unlimited restrictions indicates boundaries on permitted actions. Goddesses may be penalized for dereliction of duty and may have their license suspended for a time, a goddess using her powers during suspension will have her license permanently revoked. Belldandy is a Goddess First Class, Second Category, Unlimited License, Urd and Skuld are Goddesses Second Class, First Category, Limited License. Goddesses also wear power limiters, usually in the form of jewelry, the goddesses purpose is to bring happiness to everyone around them

12. Video Girl Ai – Video Girl Ai is a manga series created by Masakazu Katsura and published by Shueishas Weekly Shōnen Jump. It also has an anime adaptation, the manga is published in English by Viz Communications. It was formerly published in the anthology Animerica Extra by Viz and it was started in 1989 and continued until 1992, and fifteen manga volumes were produced. A live-action movie of Video Girl Ai was released in 1991, the plot starts much like the first volume of the manga, but differs later, and the ending is quite different from the OVA and manga. An English dubbed version was released in December 2001, the Video Girl Ai anime is a six-part OVA series which was produced by I. G. The series was released in 1992 by Jump Video and it roughly covers most of the material found in volumes 1 and 3 of the manga. The character designs for the anime remained faithful to the manga style, anime writer Jason Thompson stated that compared to Kimagure Orange Road, Video Girl Ai is more sexual and angsty. Video Girl Ai was followed in 1993 with another sci-fi/romantic comedy manga DNA² and it was started in 1989 and continued until 1992, and fifteen manga volumes were produced. The first 13 volumes tell a story about a girl named Ai Amano. The last two volumes, which years later, focus on a video girl named Len, hence the new name for these two volumes – Video Girl Len. Although they have different protagonists, the Ai and Len sub-stories are not entirely unrelated, they place in the same setting. Two characters from the first 13 volumes also appear in volumes 14 &15, volume 15 concludes with a bonus chapter about Video Girl Haruno. Her story was written before Video Girl Ai, and is almost totally separate from the stories of Ai and Len, the story starts when Yota Moteuchi finds out that the girl he likes, Moemi Hayakawa, is in love with his best friend, Takashi Niimai. Disappointed by this fact, he decides to rent a video from a video store that appeared in front of him on his way home. The video store was called Gokuraku, not knowing about the video girls, Yota chooses to rent the video Ill Cheer You Up. starring Ai Amano. Ai comes to life with the purpose to brighten up Yotas life, however, Yota plays the video on a broken video recorder, which causes Ai to come out broken, among other effects she has the ability to feel emotions. This additional feature of Ai causes her to fall in love with Yota. From this point on, the story changes slightly and concentrates on Yota

13. Oni – Oni are a kind of yōkai from Japanese folklore, variously translated as demons, devils, ogres, or trolls. They are popular characters in Japanese art, literature, and theatre, depictions of oni vary widely but usually portray them as hideous, gigantic ogre-like creatures with sharp claws, wild hair, and two long horns growing from their heads. They are humanoid for the most part, but occasionally, they are shown with unnatural features such as odd numbers of eyes or extra fingers and their skin may be any number of colors, but red and blue are particularly common. They are often depicted wearing tiger-skin loincloths and carrying iron clubs called kanabō and this image leads to the expression oni with an iron club, that is, to be invincible or undefeatable. It can also be used in the sense of strong beyond strong, in addition to this, it can mean to go overboard, or be unnecessarily strong or powerful. These nebulous beings could also take on a variety of forms to deceive humans, thus the Chinese character 鬼 meaning ghost came to be used for these formless creatures. They share many similarities with the Arabian Jinn. Another source for the image is a concept from China. The north direction was once termed the kimon, and was considered an unlucky direction through which evil spirits passed, temples are often built facing that direction, and Japanese buildings sometimes have L-shaped indentions at the northeast to ward oni away. Enryakuji, on Mount Hiei northeast of the center of Kyoto, the Japanese capital itself moved northeast from Nagaoka to Kyoto in the 8th century. Some villages hold yearly ceremonies to drive away oni, particularly at the beginning of Spring, during the Setsubun festival, people throw soybeans outside their homes and shout Oni wa soto. Monkey statues are thought to guard against oni, since the Japanese word for monkey. Folklore has it that holly can be used to guard against Oni, in Japanese versions of the game tag, the player who is it is instead called the oni. In more recent times, oni have lost some of their original wickedness, men in oni costumes often lead Japanese parades to ward off any bad luck, for example. Japanese buildings sometimes include oni-faced roof tiles called onigawara, which are thought to ward away bad luck, Oni are prominently featured in the Japanese childrens story Momotaro, and the book The Funny Little Woman. Many Japanese idioms and proverbs also make reference to oni, variants of this expression include oya ni ninu ko wa onigo and oya ni ninu ko wa onikko. There is also a well known game in Japan called kakure oni, which means hidden oni, or more commonly kakurenbo, hiroshi Aramatas award-winning, bestselling historical fantasy novel Teito Monogatari revolves around the exploits of an oni who is a lieutenant in the Japanese Imperial Army. Dr. Noriko Tsunoda Reider, professor of Japanese Language and Literature at Ohio State University, credits the novel with raising the onis status and popularity greatly in modern times

14. Extraterrestrial life

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (March 2017) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Japanese article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ja|平野文)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Fumi Hirano(平野 文,Hirano Fumi, born April 23, 1955 in Tokyo) is a Japanese voice actress and essayist who is best known for voicing Lum Invader in the anime series Urusei Yatsura. Fumi attended Tamagawa University in Machida, Tokyo where she graduated with a degree in Theatre from the Department of Fine Arts in the College of Humanities. She is affiliated with Aoni Production.

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